|ClearBox Server v1.2 User's Guide|
ClearBox Server has built-in support for the following basic methods used to authenticate users.
Under PAP (Password Authentication Protocol), the user (and change all
other) negotiates with the NAS "in the clear." No encryption
is used to send the password to the NAS.
NAS sends the password encrypted in RADIUS protocol (using User-Password attribute, packet authenticator and shared secret) and unencrypted in TACACS+ protocol (as the whole packet is encrypted).
On receiving access request, ClearBox Server has the password in clear
text form and is able to make use of it for authentication.
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) avoids sending passwords
in clear text over any communication link.
The NAS sends this digest as the password in the authentication request packet. Because the encryption is one-way, ClearBox Server cannot recover the password from the digest. What it can do is perform the identical digest operation using the NAS's challenge (provided in the request packet) and its own copy of the user's password. If the two digests match, the password is the same.
ClearBox Server must be able to perform the digest operation in order to support CHAP. Therefore, it must have access to its own copy of the user's password.
MS-CHAP and MS-CHAPv2
MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a Microsoft authentication protocol that, like CHAP, avoids sending passwords in clear text. ClearBox Server supports both 40-bit (version 1) and 128-bit (version 2) MS-CHAP methods.
ClearBox Server must be able to perform a digest operation similar to CHAP in order to support MS-CHAP. Therefore, it must have access to its own copy of the user's password.
An NT Domain controller provides MS-CHAP support, and will handle the digest operation itself once server extension sends the username and password through; however, the user must be on the local domain for the password to be recognized.
ARAP (Apple Remote Access Protocol) is an Apple authentication protocol which uses challenges and responses, like CHAP, to avoid sending clear text passwords through the network. Under ARAP, the NAS sends two random numbers to the dial-in client which should be DES encrypted with the user's password. Then the dial-in client sends this result, the user's name and two random numbers of its own back to the NAS. The NAS verifies the encrypted random numbers sent by the dial-in client. If they are right, it encrypts the dial-in client's challenge using the password and sends it back to the dial-in client.
The NAS sends his challenge, User's response and his challenge in authentication request packet. ClearBox Server must perform the identical encryption operation using the challenge of the NAS, User's response and challenge (provided in the request packet) and its own copy of the user's password. If the two digests match, the password is the same.
ClearBox Server must be able to perform the encryption operation in order to support ARAP. Therefore, it must have access to its own copy of the User's password.
The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), described in RFC
2284, provides a standard mechanism for support of additional
The RADIUS server is used to shuttle RADIUS-encapsulated EAP Packets between the NAS and a backend security server. While the conversation between the RADIUS server and the backend security server will typically occur using a proprietary protocol developed by the backend security server vendor, it is also possible to use RADIUS-encapsulated EAP via the EAP-Message attribute. This has the advantage of allowing the RADIUS server to support EAP without the need for authentication-specific code, which can instead reside on the backend security server.
ClearBox Server provides COM interface implemented by server extensions allowing them to handle any EAP security protocol.
This protocol is similar to CHAP described above except for that is incapsulated in EAP packets transitted by NAS between authenticated peer (client) and RADIUS server. First, RADIUS server receives EAP/Identity response from a peer. Then RADIUS server issues a challenge in EAP/MD5 Challenge request. Client generates a response from the challenge and his password and replies with EAP/MD5 Response. RADIUS server generates a MD5 hash using its copy of user password and the challenge. If they its hash and user response are identical, server issues EAP/Success packet, EAP/Failure otherwise.
ClearBox Server must be able to perform the digest operation in order to support EAP MD5. Therefore, it must have access to its own copy of the user's password.
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